Anorexia and hypermetabolism

No items found.
No items found.

What is hypermetabolism? It is when the metabolic system is hyperactive so much that the person starts burning higher amounts of calories, leading to weight loss. 

Last updated on 
In this article

Hypermetabolism or hypermetabolic conditions can occur in many different scenarios, particularly when the body needs to produce a lot of energy to heal itself. For example, when someone has suffered severe burns, multiple fractures, infection or sepsis, hyperthyroidism, traumatic brain injury, surgery, etc, the body will become hypermetabolic, burning a lot of calories to produce the energy necessary to heal. 

If the body is hypermetabolic and burning a lot of calories, the individual also has to consume a lot of calories - supply needs to match demand. 

When hypermetabolism occurs long term, it can cause insulin resistance, the breakdown of protein, carbohydrates, and triglycerides. Some of the serious symptoms that may also occur include:

  • anemia
  • elevated or irregular heart rate
  • shortness of breath
  • excessive weakness
  • muscle weakness and fatigue

You might be interested in

Hypermetabolism in anorexia

When a person experiences prolonged starvation, such as in the case of anorexia nervosa (AN), hypermetabolism may occur. If the body has insufficient calories from food, it starts to break down fat and muscle in order to supply energy to sustain life. This is considered a hypermetabolic state because the body is continually trying to produce energy in spite of the lack of external caloric intake. As a result of this, patients begin to lose weight and can eventually become malnourished. 

When the body is in a hypermetabolic state and the individual begins treatment, medical supervision during the period of refeeding is very important. In extreme cases of prolonged starvation and hyper-metabolism, the body becomes depleted of many nutrients along with fats and proteins. If repeated too quickly, it can lead to electrolyte imbalances, nausea/vomiting, and even cardiac arrhythmias. Therefore, it is important to re-introduce food and calories slowly. It is especially important to work with a team of professionals that includes a dietitian, psychotherapist and medical doctor during this time of early treatment and refeeding. 

Here are some basic facts to know if you or a loved one are being treated for anorexia: (1)

  1. If calorie restriction has been mild or limited in duration, refeeding syndrome may not occur at all, and it may be totally safe to continue to encourage healthy eating at home while working with a therapist as an outpatient 
  2. If severe calorie restriction has occurred for a long time, a patient may need to spend some time in the hospital or in a medically-supervised program in order to be monitored during the refeeding period 
  3. Calories have to be increased slowly in steps. hypermetabolism may last three to six months after weight restoration.

If a person is exercising appropriately that is healthy. However, if a person is exercising excessively as one of the symptoms of their disease in order to keep off calories, bear in mind that heavy exercise also increases the hypermetabolic state, meaning that the individual will likely need even more calorie repletion in order to recover a healthy weight. Moderate healthy exercise is encouraged. Obsessive, compulsive and “compensatory exercise” is not. 

If you or a loved one is struggling with extreme calorie loss and experiencing a hypermetabolic state that may need medical treatment, reach out to your doctors. For help in treating eating disorders, talk with our team at Within Health.

You might be interested in

Disclaimer about "overeating": Within Health hesitatingly uses the word "overeating" because it is the term currently associated with this condition in society, however, we believe it inherently overlooks the various psychological aspects of this condition which are often interconnected with internalized diet culture, and a restrictive mindset about food. For the remainder of this piece, we will therefore be putting "overeating" in quotations to recognize that the diagnosis itself pathologizes behavior that is potentially hardwired and adaptive to a restrictive mindset.

Resources

  1. Tetyana. (2015, September 7). Hypermetabolism in anorexia nervosa. Science of Eating Disorders. Retrieved May 19, 2022, from https://www.scienceofeds.org/2014/05/07/hypermetabolism-in-anorexia-nervosa/ 
  2. Marzola, E., Nasser, J. A., Hashim, S. A., Shih, P.-an B., & Kaye, W. H. (2013). Nutritional rehabilitation in anorexia nervosa: Review of the literature and implications for treatment. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-13-290

FAQs

Further reading

Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia's effect on your organs

All organs are affected by anorexia nervosa (AN) and starvation, some...
Thumbnail image of an article

Why does anorexia bloating occur?

Bloating is something that can occur in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and cause...
Thumbnail image of an article

Why anorexia causes bruising

Bruising in the body results from outside pressure to the skin and tissue, such as a...
Thumbnail image of an article

What happens to hair growth when you have anorexia?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe eating disorder characterized by an extreme fear of...
Thumbnail image of an article

What are the effects of anorexia on teeth and oral health?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health disorder that can lead to...
Thumbnail image of an article

What are common anorexia nervosa complications?

Individuals struggling with anorexia nervosa (AN) are in danger of developing a...
Thumbnail image of an article

Understanding yellow skin in anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious medical condition that can cause damage to the...
Thumbnail image of an article

The connection between anorexia and edema

Edema anorexia is common in patients with both subtypes of anorexia, with...
Thumbnail image of an article

Refeeding syndrome and anorexia

Refeeding syndrome is a constellation of symptoms that can occur when an individual...
Thumbnail image of an article

How does anorexia affect the brain?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a disorder of undereating, and results in profound...
Thumbnail image of an article

How does anorexia affect eyesight?

The eyes, like any other organ, need proper nutrients to function. People living...
Thumbnail image of an article

How anorexia nervosa can affect heart rates

Those who struggle with anorexia nervosa (AN) severely restrict what they eat due...
Thumbnail image of an article

How anorexia nervosa affects your hands

You may not realize that anorexia nervosa (AN) can literally affect every part of the...
Thumbnail image of an article

Does anorexia cause mood swings?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that involves caloric restriction...
Thumbnail image of an article

Can eating disorders cause anemia?

Anemia is a condition that occurs when there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells in the...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia’s effect on hair growth

One body system, among others, that anorexia nervosa (AN) impacts is the...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia nervosa and brain fog: What is it?

Brain fog is considered to be a temporary mild cognitive impairment and sometimes...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia nervosa ketoacidosis symptoms

Ketoacidosis, or ketosis, is a metabolic state where the body has high con...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and your digestive system

Anorexia nervosa (AN) can definitely affect your digestive system. One of the most...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and the kidneys

Those who struggle with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) often develop...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia, bone pain, joint pain, and body aches

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that affects both the...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and irritable bowel syndrome

Research highlights the increased prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and hypermetabolism

Hypermetabolism is when the metabolic system is hyperactive so much that the...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and lower back pain

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) live with an intense fear of gaining...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and gastroparesis

Gastroparesis (literally meaning “stomach paralysis) is a condition that affects the...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and cachexia

Cachexia is a very serious, complex condition that occurs with anorexia...
Thumbnail image of an article

Anorexia and constipation

Most people experience constipation at some point. This can happen for many reasons...