Text Link

Learn more about the results we get at Within

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Learn more about the results we get at Within

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Suspendisse varius enim in eros elementum tristique. Duis cursus, mi quis viverra ornare, eros dolor interdum nulla, ut commodo diam libero vitae erat. Aenean faucibus nibh et justo cursus id rutrum lorem imperdiet. Nunc ut sem vitae risus tristique posuere.

Does anorexia cause diabetes?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a common eating disorder that can seriously impact someone's mental, physical, and emotional health. Among the more profound impacts AN has on someone’s physical health is how it may affect blood sugar and insulin levels and production.

Still, while the development of Type 2 diabetes has been linked to several eating disorders, including bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED), there doesn’t appear to be the same connection between the development of this condition and anorexia nervosa.1

Last updated on 
December 6, 2023
December 5, 2023
Does anorexia cause diabetes?
In this article

Causes of diabetes 

Diabetes is a metabolic and endocrine disorder that results in an inability to metabolize sugar properly. Central to this internal process is a hormone called insulin, which helps the body turn sugar into fuel.

Diabetes can develop in several ways.

Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes is generally genetic.

People with this condition cannot produce enough insulin due to their body’s immune system attacking cells in the pancreas that produce the hormone. This can result in too much sugar—also called glucose—remaining in the blood, which can lead to many issues, some of which can be life-threatening.2

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes develops over time.

People with this condition have trouble using insulin, or their bodies eventually become resistant to insulin, which also results in high blood sugar.

And while genetic factors can impact the development of Type 2 diabetes, the condition is more frequently connected to age or lifestyle factors.3

Insulin sensitivity and resistance in Type 2 diabetes 

Insulin sensitivity is a phrase that describes a cell’s ability to respond appropriately to insulin—to take glucose out of the bloodstream and use it for energy or store it for future energy use. 

Poor insulin sensitivity is sometimes called insulin resistance. When this occurs, a cell will not get the message about what to do with the glucose as quickly, and the body will have to produce more insulin for cells to respond appropriately.4

Insulin resistance is not necessarily the same thing as diabetes, but it is often considered a precursor to developing Type 2 diabetes. Like Type 2 diabetes itself, the condition can be brought on by genetic or lifestyle factors.4

Insulin sensitivity and anorexia 

Diabetes and eating disorders share many connections, primarily through the way they both impact food intake, blood sugar, and several internal processes.

Learn more about remote treatment for diabetes and other eating disorders.

Remote treatment

Diabetes and eating disorders share many connections, primarily through the way they both impact food intake, blood sugar, and several internal processes.

However, the question of how anorexia influences insulin sensitivity and the body’s reaction to glucose is a complicated one. While AN does not directly lead someone to develop diabetes, the disordered eating behaviors involved in the condition can have an impact on these other diabetes-adjacent factors.

Anorexia nervosa and insulin levels

Connections between AN and insulin resistance have been studied as far back as 1988.5 In that seminal analysis, fasting blood glucose levels—or blood sugar levels after a period of not eating—were compared to insulin levels in patients with AN, with the data suggesting a degree of insulin resistance. Still, these effects seemed to be at least partially reversed once patients began safely refeeding or achieved weight gain.5

A more recent study connected AN to possible insulin resistance through cortisol.6 One of the main stress hormones produced by the body, cortisol, can impact some internal functions, and this study found that patients with AN may produce more cortisol, which could lead to higher levels of insulin resistance.6

Yet another examination showed that insulin sensitivity could change throughout the recovery process, with those in the refeeding stage potentially at a higher risk of developing insulin resistance.7

Essentially, these mixed findings have led to a lack of clarity around long-term fasting, refeeding, and insulin sensitivity in people with AN. What is clear is that those struggling with anorexia nervosa should proceed with refeeding carefully, ideally under the guidance of doctors, to help avoid any potential health complications.

Does having anorexia predispose someone to developing diabetes? 

While AN has sometimes been connected to insulin resistance, the condition ultimately isn’t considered a risk factor for developing Type 2 diabetes.1 Still, other factors may influence the onset of this condition. 

If someone has a family history of diabetes or other risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes, they may still develop the condition, prediabetes, or insulin resistance, regardless of whether they struggle with anorexia nervosa.

What is “diabulimia”?

Diabulimia is not an official medical term, but it describes a dangerous behavioral pattern around diabetes management when someone with Type 1 diabetes will withhold insulin therapy to lose weight.8

When a patient has Type 1 diabetes and is not receiving enough insulin to utilize glucose in the blood properly, their body's cells will turn elsewhere for energy sources, including fat and protein stores. However, the lack of glucose means these sources will not correctly “feed” the cells.8

Insulin helps cells access energy, and without it, cells will essentially starve, no matter how much food someone eats. When this occurs, metabolic and physiologic changes happen that can be extremely dangerous.

When cells do not receive enough energy, it can lead to extreme malnourishment, dehydration, and dangerously high blood sugar levels. And the physical complications that result from these issues—including kidney and liver disease, muscle atrophy, and a higher risk of developing infections—can be debilitating or even deadly.8

Finding help for anorexia nervosa or diabulimia

If you or a loved one are struggling with anorexia nervosa, developing disordered eating habits, or exhibiting symptoms of diabulimia, such as intentionally skipping insulin injections, it’s essential to seek out help.

Your physician, therapist, or mental health professional can be a good point of contact, helping you receive an official diagnosis or determine the next best steps for finding help.

Remote care for anorexia

Contact the clinical care team at Within Health. Our program aims to help everyone who struggles with disordered eating behavior, connecting them with an individualized care team and other essential resources.

Recovering from an eating disorder may seem impossible, but help is always available, and it’s never too late to start.

Get help today

Disclaimer about "overeating": Within Health hesitatingly uses the word "overeating" because it is the term currently associated with this condition in society, however, we believe it inherently overlooks the various psychological aspects of this condition which are often interconnected with internalized diet culture, and a restrictive mindset about food. For the remainder of this piece, we will therefore be putting "overeating" in quotations to recognize that the diagnosis itself pathologizes behavior that is potentially hardwired and adaptive to a restrictive mindset.

Disclaimer about weight loss drugs: Within does not endorse the use of any weight loss drug or behavior and seeks to provide education on the insidious nature of diet culture. We understand the complex nature of disordered eating and eating disorders and strongly encourage anyone engaging in these behaviors to reach out for help as soon as possible. No statement should be taken as healthcare advice. All healthcare decisions should be made with your individual healthcare provider.

Resources

  1. Nieto-Martínez, R., González-Rivas, J. P., Medina-Inojosa, J. R., & Florez, H. (2017). Are Eating Disorders Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Current Diabetes Reports, 17(12), 138.
  2. Type 1 vs Type 2 Diabetes. (n.d.). University of Virginia Health. Accessed June 2023. 
  3. Symptoms & Causes of Diabetes. (n.d.). National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed June 2023. 
  4. Insulin Resistance and Diabetes. (2022, June 20). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed June 2023. 
  5. Scheen, A. J., Castillo, M., & Lefèbvre, P. J. (1988). Insulin sensitivity in anorexia nervosa: a mirror image of obesity? Diabetes/metabolism reviews, 4(7), 681–690.
  6. Liyanarachchi, K., Ross, R., & Debono, M. (2017). Human studies on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Best practice & research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 31(5), 459–473.
  7. Prioletta, A., Muscogiuri, G., Sorice, G. P., Lassandro, A. P., Mezza, T., Policola, C., Salomone, E., Cipolla, C., Della Casa, S., Pontecorvi, A., & Giaccari, A. (2011). In anorexia nervosa, even a small increase in abdominal fat is responsible for the appearance of insulin resistance. Clinical Endocrinology, 75(2), 202–206.
  8. Diabulimia. (n.d.). Cleveland Clinic. Accessed June 2023.

FAQs

Further reading

Exercise bulimia vs. anorexia athletica

Many people know at least a little bit about eating disorders like anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia...

Do I have anorexia nervosa?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder that may manifest differently in different people and can...

What is weight restoration?

Weight restoration refers to the process of returning to a healthier body weight after experiencing weight...

Does anorexia cause dehydration?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious and life-threatening mental health condition that commonly manifests as...

Does anorexia face swelling occur?

The severe nutritional deficiency seen in those with anorexia nervosa (AN) can lead to edema, which is a...

Signs and symptoms of starvation

Malnutrition is an unfortunate and potentially dangerous condition that impacts the ways the body is able...

Anorexia health risks and dangers

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that can result in a variety of medical complications...

What is comorbidity?

You may have heard the term comorbidity when learning more about...

Anorexia's effect on your organs

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious mental health disorder, but the condition nearly always manifests as a...

Why does anorexia bloating occur?

While not an official medical term, “anorexia bloating” can be used to describe bloating that occurs as a...

Anorexia and bruising: Signs, causes, and healing

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a dangerous mental health condition, but it can also manifest in several physical...

What happens to hair growth when you have anorexia?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental health disorder, characterized by an extreme fear of gaining...

What are the effects of anorexia on teeth and oral health?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) may be a mental health disorder, but it can have a number of physical consequences...

Mental health and physical medical complications of anorexia nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a dangerous eating disorder that affects all facets of someone's life, with the...

Yellow skin in anorexia nervosa: Jaundice symptoms

Anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and other eating disorders affect more than someone's mental...

Edema in anorexia recovery: causes, symptoms and treatment

Edema anorexia is common in patients with both subtypes of anorexia, with...

Refeeding syndrome and anorexia

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a dangerous eating disorder that requires specialized care and treatment to overcome.

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that causes a range of phys...

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

Kluver-Bucy syndrome is a rare disordered eating condition caused by an injury...

How does anorexia affect the brain?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious mental health condition most often associated with extreme food...

How does anorexia affect eyesight?

Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa (AN), binge eating disorder (BED), and bulimia nervosa (BN) may each...

Can anorexia cause heart problems?

Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa (AN) are mental health conditions, but they can result in a number...

How anorexia affects hands: cold, shaking, tingling and discolored fingernails

You may not realize that the eating disorder anorexia nervosa (AN) can affect every part of the human body...

Gourmand syndrome

Gourmand syndrome is a rare eating disorder affecting people with injuries to...

Does anorexia cause parotid gland swelling?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) does cause parotid gland swelling, particularly if AN is...

The occurrence of anorexia and mood swings

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that involves caloric restriction...

Does anorexia cause diabetes?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a common eating disorder that can seriously impact someone's mental, physical, and...

Can eating disorders cause anemia?

Anemia is a condition that occurs when there aren’t enough healthy red blood cells in the...

What causes lanugo hair in anorexia?

The disordered eating patterns involved with anorexia nervosa (AN) can impact nearly every function of the...

Anorexia nervosa and brain fog: What is it?

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious mental health condition, which can manifest as any number of complications.

Anorexia nervosa ketoacidosis symptoms

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious mental health condition, but it can have just as many detrimental effects..

Anorexia and your digestive system

Anorexia nervosa (AN) can definitely affect your digestive system. One of the most...

Anorexia and the kidneys

Those who struggle with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) often develop...

Anorexia joint pain, muscle, bone and body aches

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious eating disorder that affects both the...

Can anorexia cause IBS (irritable bowel syndrome)?

Research highlights the increased prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in those suffering from an....

Anorexia and hypermetabolism

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a mental health condition, but the eating disorder nearly always has an outsized...

Anorexia and lower back pain

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) live with an intense fear of gaining...

Anorexia and gastroparesis

Gastroparesis (literally meaning “stomach paralysis) is a condition that affects the movement and muscles...

Anorexia and cachexia

Cachexia is a very serious, complex condition that occurs with anorexia...

Anorexia and constipation

Constipation, or not being able to pass stool regularly or completely, is a fairly common condition that...