Understanding atypical anorexia nervosa
Individuals who have AAN are usually within the “normal” weight range or at a higher weight. Because they appear to be “healthy,” and may even be praised for losing weight, they may not even realize they have AAN themselves and are often undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. This is an example of weight-bias at work in healthcare and eating disorder treatment and how misconceptions about weight, body size, and health can have a negative effect on health and access to care. (1,2)
But because atypical anorexia shares many of the same features as anorexia, AAN can be just as serious and life threatening as “typical” anorexia.
To recognize atypical forms of eating disorders, it’s essential to first understand the typical conditions. Anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rate. (3) Someone who has anorexia restricts eating severely and loses an extreme amount of weight, resulting in a dangerously low body weight.
This starvation results in malnutrition and serious physical consequences, including heart problems, endocrine problems, digestive disorders, and long-term reproductive disorders–even organ failure and death. There is a large psychological component to the disorder as well, with a high risk of suicide. Even when the patient’s weight has stabilized, it does not mean their mental state has stabilized. (4) Relapse is common, with rates between 23 and 33%, and treatments are often ineffective. (3,4)
Atypical anorexia nervosa was added to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) in 2013. (5) This text is the standard that all American psychiatrists use for diagnosing mental disorders.
Library sections you should visit
Comparing atypical anorexia to anorexia
People who have AAN and AN both severely restrict the calories they consume. They are also intensely afraid of gaining weight and may refuse to gain weight. Their self-worth is tied to their body shape and weight. They have a distorted body image.
The main difference between the two disorders is that body weight may be in the normal range for AAN. It’s possible that someone with AAN may have had weight loss in the past that occurred over time instead of suddenly.
In addition, the prevalence of atypical anorexia is much higher. AAN is found in up to almost 14% of females, and up to almost 5% in men. That’s a lot higher than the incidence of AN, which is about 4% in females and 0.3% in men. (6)
Symptoms of atypical anorexia nervosa
Like AN, symptoms of AAN may include:
- Skipping meals or eating smaller portions of food
- Drinking excess amounts of water or non-caloric beverages
- Stomach cramps or other GI symptoms
- Cutting out certain foods or groups of foods
- Avoiding social events and functions that involve food
- Feeling uncomfortable when others are in the same vicinity while eating
Causes of anorexia nervosa/atypical anorexia nervosa
Anorexia and atypical anorexia, like all eating disorders, are very complex and have many possible causes, including biological and environmental.
Biological causes of AN may include:
- Structural changes in the brain
- Disordered reward and inhibitory systems in the brain
- Changes in gut microflora
Environmental factors that may cause AN include:
- Personality traits
- Family environment
- Psychological states of mind
- Stress and trauma
- Peer pressure
Biological factors in anorexia nervosa
The biological factors that have been identified in AN are:
- Changes in the brain’s gray matter in areas that control emotions, motivation, and goal-directed behavior.
- Disordered reward and inhibitory systems of the brain that result in compulsive behavior.
- Genetics, with a high rate of heritability for disordered eating symptoms found in twins–up to 82% –and differences in serotonin and DNA methylation genes. (8,10,11,12)
- Imbalance of bacteria levels in the gut due to malnutrition that correlate with anxiety, depression, obsession-compulsion, and immune reactions that disrupt hunger and satiety cues. (13,14,15)
While some of these factors may contribute to both anorexia and atypical anorexia, another study found no changes in gray matter in newly diagnosed AAN patients, which researchers believed was due to the different degree of weight loss in AAN patients. (16)
However, more research is needed to explore the biological causes of atypical anorexia nervosa further.
Environmental factors of anorexia nervosa and atypical anorexia nervosa
Early research on anorexia attributed the environment as the biggest cause of eating disorders, including psychological, emotional, and societal factors.
Psychological factors for atypical anorexia
Personality traits, such as perfectionism and obsessive-compulsiveness, as well as emotional disorders, such as anxiety or depression, may lead to distorted thinking and behaviors that can cause AN. Being competitive, not being able to deal with conflict, and having low self-esteem are also contributing factors. And experiencing trauma, such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse, financial instability or poverty, death of a loved one, divorce, or discrimination of any kind, such as sex, gender, race, or weight, can lead to an eating disorder.
Both anorexia and atypical anorexia share some of these causes. Trauma often leads to AAN, just as it does for AN. The Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACE) measures the incidence of trauma an individual experiences during childhood. Adolescents who had high ACE scores (greater than or equal to 4) had more than five times higher odds of having AAN than those who had lower ACE scores in one study. There was no difference between groups on measures of low self-esteem and non-accidental self-injury. (17)
Another study found no difference in the frequency of psychiatric comorbidities (43% vs 38% in AN) or suicide ideation (43% vs 39%). However, distress related to eating and body image was more severe in AAN. (19)
Social factors for atypical anorexia
Our society’s fixation on fitness and focus on appearance can contribute to the development of anorexia, atypical anorexia, and other eating disorders. Diet culture and weight stigma also play a big role in disordered eating. The pressure to conform, compete, be thin, and be perfect in many arenas–home, work, school, or social media, for example, can trigger disordered eating behaviors. Being in industries or occupations in which weight, body shape, and appearance are a focus may also contribute. These include flight attendants, pilots, modeling, acting, gymnastics, figure skating, wrestling, running, and ballet.
Beware of myths and misconceptions
Paradoxically, “atypical” anorexia nervosa is far more prevalent than anorexia nervosa. As cited above, AAN occurs in up to 14% of women and 5% of men vs. 4% and 0.3% occurrence of AN in men and women, respectively.
So the label “atypical” may be a misnomer. This may be due to myths and misconceptions about weight and what a person with anorexia “should” look like. (1,2) That is, the commonly held belief that people with anorexia are typically young, emaciated, white and female.
Since people with atypical anorexia are typically not thin, but of “normal,” or “straight” weight or higher, they may not realize they’re sick and healthcare professionals may not think they have anorexia. While they may lose weight, they still may not be very thin. Their efforts to lose weight may be praised as an attempt to get “healthier,” thanks to diet culture and weight stigma. But, weight is not an indicator of health. And, in reality, they are getting sicker. In fact, prescribing weight loss feeds the disorder.
You might be interested in
Treatment for atypical anorexia nervosa
No specific approach in treating AN has shown any clear superiority. (18) And there haven’t been any studies to date on AAN treatments to determine which works best. But treatment approaches to date have found combining re-nourishment and psychotherapy specific to AN can be effective.
Atypical anorexia is a very complex eating disorder that can have life-threatening implications. Weight stigma and misconceptions about what a person with anorexia “should” look like mean many people with atypical anorexia nervosa are not aware they have a problem and go undiagnosed or misdiagnosed for longer, which can make the condition even more dire. Raising awareness is an important part of diagnosis and treatment. But there is hope, and help is available.
If you or someone you love is looking for clinically-superior, and compassionate care for an eating disorder, Within Health is here to help. Call our clinical care team to learn more about our virtual treatment programs for eating disorders.